Guidelines for Virtual Meetings & Teleconferences

Lela Vandenberg, Ph.D., with Kathryn Foerster, M.A.

Michigan State University Extension  2010

 Working effectively and productively as a virtual team is possible, but there are obvious impediments to communication, motivation, decision making, and accomplishment.  Studies have shown that the total amount of information exchanged by virtual teams tends to be less than in face-to-face groups.  This can be attributed to limited communication channels, as well as the lack of nonverbal communication.  Motivation to share opinions is negatively affected by disagreement and a tendency to rush consensus.  In virtual meetings, the first opinion offered tends to dominate, and people with minority opinions find it difficult to enter conflicting ideas into the discussion.  Without a full discussion of issues and opinions, decision making, planning, and coordinating activities can be difficult.  In fact, virtual teams tend to spend more time discussing the procedural aspects of a meeting than engaging in meaningful work, which can lead to frustration and undermine motivation.  (Duarte & Snyder, 2006).

 There is a bright side!  Other studies, and many case studies, have shown that these problems can be overcome.  With a variety of communication methods and a good electronic meeting system (EMS), such as the Adobe Connect Pro system available to us through MSUE, virtual teams can even be more productive and efficient than face-to-face teams.  Duarte and Snyder point out that “With the right task, agenda, and facilitation, virtual teams can actually surpass in-person teams in many areas.”  Virtual team members can actually participate more fully than they would be able to face-to-face through the use of various methods such as round robin discussions, chat pod brainstorming and polling, and asynchronous dialogue.  Through these and other methods, the contributions of every team member can be maximized in exciting ways. 

 Guidelines for Effective Teleconferencing

 One thing scholars agree on is that virtual meetings need even more careful planning and facilitation than face-to-face sessions.  Collected here are some guidelines and tips for making virtual meetings as interactive, participatory, and productive as possible. These guidelines are organized under four key tasks:  creating structure; building a sense of community; maximizing interaction; and minimizing groupthink.

 Creating Structure.  Structuring the meeting in advance is probably the most important thing a leader can do to ensure that tasks are accomplished and goals are achieved.  Here are some tips for doing that:

  1. Have a clear purpose, a set of objectives, and an agenda, including a time frame for each item. Send these to everyone in advance, and ask for input. 
  2. Send instructions for how participants can prepare for the meeting and what information and documents they need to have at hand.
  3. Gather opinions about non-controversial items through email before the meeting and report results at the meeting to avoid spending time on things everyone agrees on.
  4. Solicit opinions on purpose, goals, time frame and processes at the beginning of each meeting. Check for agreement before proceeding.
  5. Summarize agreements and next steps at the end of each meeting. Periodically summarize progress during the meeting.
  6. Keep meetings short—one hour is good. Two hours is the maximum most people can concentrate in a teleconference.  Take a break half way if meeting is more than 1½ hours.
  7. Keep meetings small. With more than eight people on a call, having full participation of all becomes very difficult.  If meetings have to be larger, use the small group breakout feature of Adobe Connect Pro and have groups report back.  Or use a ‘fishbowl’ technique, where small groups rotate holding the discussion while the others listen.

 Building a Sense of Community.  Motivating ongoing participation is a challenge for teams that rarely meet face-to-face.  Successful virtual teams are not only productive, they also appreciate each other and feel group ownership of their work.  Building this sense of community takes extra effort in virtual teams, but it is possible.  It usually begins with getting to know each other, and grows as team members accept and work through differences, and demonstrate reliability and trustworthiness.  Here are some ideas for building a sense of community:

  1. Begin each call with a round-robin ‘check-in’, inviting participants to respond to a question. This could be something personal (e.g.: What is something exciting you’re anticipating? What’s a good book/movie you’ve read/seen recently? What’s one thing you’d rather be doing right now?  What are your plans for next weekend?), or something related to the work of the team (e.g.: What are your hopes for this meeting?  This team? What about our work most excites you? What do you appreciate most about this team?).  Be sure to put a time limit on this kind of sharing, and do a little at each meeting.
  2. Have participants identify themselves each time they speak.
  3. Have one meeting devoted to teleconference training, and involve participants in discussing guidelines for making meetings effective. (See sample guidelines below).
  4. Most importantly, involve participants in developing guidelines for handling disagreements. Talk about the value and inevitability of having different opinions, and the importance of openly discussing and resolving differences before moving forward with plans and agreements.
  5. Send minutes of the meeting within a day or two, asking for input or corrections. Be sure to include any agreements and next steps.

Maximizing Interaction.  The best way to build community is to ensure everyone is engaged and in agreement with the group’s work.  Without the benefit of nonverbal channels, virtual meeting facilitators have to create other ways for people to stay involved and participate fully. On conference calls, there is a tendency to ‘half listen’ while checking email, and doing other tasks.  How can we keep people fully engaged?  Here are some tips:

  1. Frequently check with people who haven’t spoken recently to see if they have anything to add.
  2. Assign meeting roles and rotate them in future meetings. Roles can include facilitator—moves the group through the agenda, periodically summarizing progress; recorder—takes notes, making special note of agreements and next steps; time keeper—watches the time for each agenda item; process observer—pays attention to and encourages participation; conflict observer—highlights and encourages further discussion of points of difference; participant—participates respectfully, listens carefully, keeps on track, supports group decisions.
  3. Use a round-robin process for discussions and brainstorming, to avoid having a few people dominate the conversation.
  4. Ask quiet people if they have anything to add before closing discussion on each topic.

 Minimizing Groupthink.  Without the benefit of non-verbal communications, it is difficult to ‘read between the lines’ of a teleconference to understand what is not being said.  People tend to say nothing if they don’t agree with what seems to be the dominant view.  The result, artificial consensus, can undermine a team’s success and lead to a lack of participation and withdrawal from the team.  Here are some ideas for minimizing this ‘groupthink’ phenomenon.

  1. Gather opinions on controversial topics before the meeting through email, and present a summary of the various opinions for discussion.
  2. Do a pro-con discussion of differing ideas or approaches. Thoroughly list the pros and cons of each point of view.
  3. Increase the amount of discussion time devoted to areas of disagreement.
  4. Make time for the conflict observer to periodically share any observations.
  5. Do a round-robin poll when making a decision. Have each person, one-by-one, give their opinion or share their concerns about a potential agreement before making a consensus decision. Silence is not consent.
  6. Use the ‘propose & poll’ tool (also called ‘gradients of agreement’) to move towards consensus. Someone shares a proposal—a suggestion for action or agreement, in specific words.  Going round robin, each person states their level of agreement with the proposal on a scale of one to five.  After discussing their ratings, the group modifies the proposal and takes the poll again, beginning with a different person.  This process can continue several times until the group agrees that an appropriate level of consensus has been reached.
  7. Use a semi-anonymous poll through email if an issue is especially sensitive.

 Teleconference Guidelines

These should be discussed and revised by the team so that they own them as shared expectations.

    1. Be on time for the call, and announce your arrival if late but do not interrupt a speaker just to introduce yourself.
    2. Come prepared with relevant information on hand.
    3. Use others’ names, and give your own name each time you’re speaking.
    4. Take turns speaking, using round robin when appropriate.
    5. Take turns filling the meeting roles:  facilitator, recorder, time keeper, process observer, conflict observer, and participant.
    6. Avoid early or false consensus.  Be open about differences and disagreements, and discuss them thoroughly.
    7. Avoid side conversations with others at your location.
    8. If using a phone conference line, use the mute button (or *6) to eliminate extraneous noises (shuffling papers, eating, drinking, heavy breathing, coughing, dogs barking, and so on). Do not put your phone on hold - you will not hear the conversations being held
    9. Take responsibility for staying on track.
    10. Announce when you’re leaving the meeting if you have to leave early.


Duarte, D.L. and N.T. Snyder.  Mastering Virtual Teams:  Strategies, Tools, and Techniques that Succeed.   San Francisco:  John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

Fisher, K. and M.D. Fisher.  The Distance Manager.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Gerke, S.K. and L.V. Berens.  Quick Guide to Interaction Styles and Working Remotely:  Strategies for Leading and Working in virtual Teams.  Huntington Beach, CA:  Telos Publications, 2003.

Nemiro, J.E.  Creativity in Virtual Teams:  Key Components for Success.  San Francisco:  John Wiley & Sons, 2004.


The origin of the US Navy's Submarine Service Insignia dates back to 1923. On 13 June of that year, Captain Ernest J. King, USN, later to become Fleet Admiral and Chief of Naval Operations during WWII, and at that time Commander Submarine Division THREE, suggested to the Secretary of the Navy, via the old Bureau of Navigation, that a distinguishing device for qualified submariners be adopted. A Philadelphia firm, which had done work for the Navy previously, was approached with a request that it undertake the design of a suitable badge.

Two designs were submitted by the firm and these were combined into a single design that is still in use today: a bow view of a submarine proceeding on the surface with bow planes rigged for diving, flanked by dolphins in horizontal positions with their heads resting on the upper edge of the bow planes.

These Dolphins are the fish, also known as Dorado or Mahi Mahi, not the sea mammal many people are familiar with. They were chosen for the insignia because they are the mythical attendants to Poseidon.

The officer's insignia is a gold plated metal pin worn centered above the left breast pocket and above the ribbons or medals.

Enlisted men wore the insignia, embroidered in silk, in white on blue for dress blue clothing, and in blue on white for dress white clothing. This was sewn on the outside of the right sleeve, midway between the wrist and elbow. The device was two and three-quarters inches long. In mid-1947 the embroidered device shifted from the sleeve of the enlisted men's jumper to above the left breast pocket. Subsequently, silver metal dolphins were approved for enlisted men.

[Source: USSVI Dallas Base newsletter Up Scope Feb 2012]

It used to be that all bikers shared a common bond, an unspoken code of ethics and behavior that transcended words and was built on respect and actions.  There was never a bible written on this bikers code and there was no need for such.  But the times are a-changin' and there seems to be a lot of new riders out there.  These days the riders you see blastin's down the road are just as likely to be clad in shorts and sneakers as jeans and engineer boots.  And the roughest, toughest-looking biker you pull up next to could be your doctor or lawyer and may be wearin' a Rolex watch under their leathers.  There's nothing wrong with that, so long as these new riders learn the Code just as we old-timers did.  Being a biker used to be about using your creativity to take a basket case old hawg and using only grit and ingenuity turning it into a one-of-a-kind eye dazzler, then risking your life on the asphalt on a bike you built yourself out of pride.  Bikers wore leather and grease because they knew cagers would just as soon run them down as look at them, so they had to be intimidating.  We were a breed unto ourselves with no union, no support group, and in many cases, no family (they threw us out). We had to make it in a world of our own, against all rules, against mainstream society, and against all odds.  We survived and prospered because of the bikers code and we never took disrespect from anybody.  As an old scooter bro once said:  "It's every tramp's job to school the young.  How else are they gonna know a Panhead from a bed pan?"  With that in mind, the following is "The Basic Bikers Code".

Take heed, brothers and sisters, for our Code is a hallowed one filled with respect, honor, and loyalty; the likes of which have not been since the days of Knighthood:

Don't take any disrespect.  Be kind to women, children and animals, but don't take any disrespect.  This is an essential part of being a biker.  It has to do with respect and honor.

Anyone can be a quick-tempered fool.  Be cool, stand tall and backup what you say with action.

Never lie, cheat or steal.  Another way of saying this is to always tell the truth.  Bikers know that their word is their bond. Your word is all you have in life that is truly yours.  Guard it carefully and be something noble for you are a true Knight of the road.

Don't snitch.  If you see a wrong, fight it yourself, if you are about anything, you'll take care of problems yourself and never feel the need to snitch someone off.  Snitches are the lowest life forms on earth, right up there with bike thieves.

Don't whine.  Absolutely no one likes or respects a whiner.  Another way to say this is "Hold your mud"; still another way to think of it is "Don't sweat the small stuff"... Remember, most of life's little inconveniences work themselves out whether you whine or not.  Keep your chin up, dammit!

You're a bike, not some lowly snail.  Never say die and never give up.  Whether it's in a fight, a debate, or a curve too tight, no matter how bad it gets, a biker never gives up!

Help others.  When a brother or sister is broken down by the side of the road, always stop and help them.  Even moral support, if that is all you can give, is better than riding on by.  And don't jsut help bikers, show the world that we are better than our image portrays us.  Courtesy costs you nothing but it brings respect tot he biker nation.

Stick to your guns.  Do what you say you'll do, be there when you say you will.  This is called "Integrity".  This also goes back to standing for something.  Like the song says, "You've got to stand for something or you'll fall for anything".

Life is not a drill.  Yeah, this ain't no dress rehearsal.  This is life so go out and take big bites of it.  

You've got no time to lose and bikers don't stand around waiting for the party to come to them.

You only go around once.  Tomorrow you could be road kill, thanks to a texter alseep at the wheel of their cage.  Live live now, make the most of each moment.

All right, now let's review.  You are a biker.  A modern-day knight of the road.  Protect the weak, walk tall and stand proud.  Your word is your bond.  Stick to your guns.  Don't take any disrespect.  Life is not a drill.

Now... Go forth and ride.  When in doubt, ride.  That is what bikers do... We Ride!  If you want to ride around in a day-glo hawaiian shirt and sandals, go for it, but if you intend to look like an idiot, at least don't ask like an idiot.

These commandments are just a few of the broad strokes, there is a lot more to being a biker than buying a bike.  If you just buy a bike, you are a motorcyclist. 

Being a biker is a way of life, a proud way of life that we hold in high regard with burning passion for the open highway.

These are some things for you, as a SSMC member, to consider when dealing with other motorcycle clubs. They are also things to consider if and when you are going to be around motorcycle clubs.

1. Patchholders are people too. They have good and bad days, they have jobs, families, and normal everyday problems and concerns just like anyone else.  There are those who no matter what you say or do, it will not be right with them.  Just like with any group, you will find both good and bad.

2. Protocol and Respect are primary rules when dealing with any motorcycle club patchholder.

If you are FORMALLY introduced to a patchholder, make sure either the person doing the introduction (or you) make sure they know what club you belong to & if you are an officer, what position you hold. Under no circumstances do you interrupt to correct a mistake while that person is introducing you or while they are talking. Wait till the introduction is done & politely introduce yourself correctly. i.e.….

Joe Rider, Silent Service Motorcycle Club, My Post, Usta-Fish Chapter.

Fred Spokes, National Position, Silent Service Motorcycle Club

(Use your name - not your nickname. Nicknames may come later.)

3. Greet them as you would meet anyone else & wait until the offer is made to shake hands. DO NOT interrupt, wait for them to recognize you.  DO NOT be offended or make a big deal if they do not offer to shake your hand.  Many times they want to get to know about you and our club a little better before they will offer to shake your hand.

4. Never, Ever, Lie. You can refuse to answer a question in a polite manner by saying something like, "That seems like club business, and I would like to refer that to one of our officers in order to get better information for you." Be prepared to answer questions about what our club is about. Such as...

A.) "We are a Veteran based, Non-territorial motorcycle club and have no intention of ever trying to become a territorial motorcycle club".

B.) The Patch is bought & not earned, but only available to those that Qualified Submarines, or are sponsored by a Qualified member in good standing.

C.) No dues or Dues - as applicable.

D.) All makes and models of motorcycle are welcomed, so long as it is greater than 500 cc’s.

E.) We are a non-territorial club.

F.) We are a neutral club and do not wear any MC support patches.

G.) Women riders are welcomed and in some cases are club officers.

H.) We are an AMA chartered Motorcycle Club.

J.) Do not offer forum links or web sites, It's better to refer them to a club officer.

K.) Do NOT brag about how large the local or national membership is.

L.) Do not volunteer club info. If they ask a question about the local chapter answer it if you can.  If they start asking questions about the number of members, or the National chain of organization refer them to one of the club Officers.

5.  Women in leadership positions or being a patchholder in motorcycle clubs, while not totally unheard of, is very rare. That's just the way it is. Most motorcycle clubs would also rather deal with a man if there is business to conduct. Most realize what a Veteran Motorcycle Club is about & will for the most part accept a woman as an officer, and a woman officer will most likely be allowed to attend any meeting. Whether or not they will deal directly with a woman officer or not depends on the individual motorcycle club/chapter. There is no set rule for this and they will let you know if it's ok with them or not.  Many motorcycle clubs do not care to deal with the National officers.  They would prefer to deal with the local or state representatives.

6. If anyone knows a patchholder, don't let him/her throw the patchholders' name/nickname/club's name around like you're a great buddy of theirs (even if you are). Many clubs consider that as a major disrespect to the whole club.

7. Watch where you are when speaking about them, and never say anything about them in public because you never know when that woman, man, or kid in regular clothes standing near you might be one of them, or a "support member".  Patchholders do not always wear their colors. By the time the story gets back to the top club in your area, it will have been changed many times over and could be blown up way out of proportion.

8. Anything said about them between club members is club business ONLY. If comments, even those said in a joking manner were to get out, problems could start.  Discussion outside the privacy of the chapter can start rumors which could cause a lot of problems for not only the chapter, but also for other chapters in and out of the state.

9. If for some reason you have to say something while in public about a motorcycle club, take the person you're talking to aside, alone, and say ONLY what you need to say to get your meaning across. Say as little as possible so anyone else can't overhear it & misunderstand what you're talking about.

10. Watch where you wear your patch (VMCs don't wear colors, colors are earned, not bought) and it's just common sense to stay in numbers when wearing the patch. (Some motorcycle clubs can be very territorial and some clubs don't see any difference between a RIDING CLUB and MOTORCYCLE CLUB, good or bad.) If you are unsure of the areas or places normally frequented by motorcycle clubs, find out from your club Officers.  If you are planning on traveling and are concerned about what the situation may be in regard to the relationship with the local motorcycle clubs in the areas you'll be traveling through or staying in, talk to your local officer and ask if they can find something out by contacting the officers in the areas you will be in.

11. "SHOW THEM RESPECT." That's A #1 with them! (and worth repeating).

12.  If you already know a patchholder, or get to know one in the future, don't just walk up to him/her and interrupt when they are with other members. Wait till he/she acknowledges you first and NEVER touch them or put your arm around them like a buddy. Don't put your hand out to shake theirs; wait for them to extend their hand first. If for some reason you're not acknowledged at all, then just keep walking.  If you need to talk to an officer of a Motorcycle Club the proper way is to go through the Sgt at Arms or one of the patchholders.

13. You have to decide whether or not you want to show respect by going to any of their functions or if you want to avoid all of them all together. If you do choose to show respect and go, you can do this in a way that may make you feel more at ease by going to one of their "support's" functions instead of the top club's function (if they have a support patch then you're still indirectly showing the top club respect). But if you do go, then you also have to go to their rival clubs' function or you'll be telling everyone that you're not a "NEUTRAL" club as you said you were. (Example: If you go to the Club A's function then YOU HAVE TO GO to the Club B's function, etc..) You have to decide how you want to stay neutral, by going or not going and you have to let all the other area chapters know if you're going too, so they're not in the dark and we can ALL stay on top of things.

**** NOTE *****

A better way to support them and still give the appearance of being a neutral club is to attend only "open to the public" events that a motorcycle club may be sponsoring.

If you feel that you do want or need to go to a "limited event", then you'll have to go representing yourself as yourself, preferably without wearing any patches identifying your club. Remember, if you're wearing your club patch, you are considered by everyone to be representing your whole club. If anything were to turn sour, then your whole club could wind up with problems down the road. Also, once the rivals of that club you visited find out (and they will within a day or two), then those rivals will see you as no longer being neutral & you could be considered a rival of theirs too.

14. No CLB's (Chapter Location Bars), any territory rockers, or anything giving the appearance of a bottom rocker should be worn with the SSMC  patch. State flags, state logos may be worn in some areas and not in others. It's best to check with the local CoC officers to make sure what is ok in your area.

15. If someone from a motorcycle club requests that you remove your vest/patch, don’t argue. The best reply is, "No Problem" & politely take it off and let your Club Officer know what motorcycle club it was so they can deal with any potential problems. You normally will only get asked once.

16. If an establishment has a sign indicating “No Colors”, even though your patch is not considered “colors”, the vest should be removed out of respect to the other clubs and the policy of the establishment.  While you may just be a Two Patch Club, it's only respectful to honor the house rules. Motorcycle clubs that honored the "house rules" would probably be deeply offended that you didn't.  Also remember, many establishments choose to have this policy and it applies to all clubs that use any kind of patch; they do not distinguish between a MC , RC or Independent.  Be aware of the local motorcycle club hangouts & it's best not to wear the SSMC patch into them without an invitation.

17.  Do not wear your Patch into a motorcycle club clubhouse unless you have asked if it's ok to do so or have been invited for a "sit down" with the officers of the motorcycle club, or been invited as a friend of the Club to attend a function there.

18.  In regard to women who are with a MC club, but not in the club:   Old Lady is not a negative or derogatory term, it's just a slang term commonly used.  "Property Of" patches are their way of showing support for their man and the club he's in.

19.  A patchholder may not, and many times will not, acknowledge your wife or girlfriend, especially upon a first meeting. 

20. DO NOT touch or sit on a patchholder's bike unless invited to do so.  Do not expect the invitation.

21.  A prospect can usually be identified by the back patch they are wearing.  There are many different ways motorcycle clubs identify prospects.  They can have the rockers without the main patch.  They can actually have a patch saying "PROSPECT".  Some do not wear any patch, because all the Patchholders know who the prospects are.  You want to treat a prospect or even someone you suspect is a prospect the same way you would treat a patchholder - with respect and courtesy.  Many clubs will take offense to someone outside their club using the prospect term. Calling someone "Prospect" if you are not a patchholder of that club more often is considered disrespectful.

22.  Have absolutely no doubt that a motorcycle club is serious and many have been known to physically educate a person who shows disrespect or displays a bad attitude.

23.  Be aware of the behavior and attitude of the other SSMC  members who are with you (especially if anyone has been drinking) at events. If necessary, try to take action to avoid problems before they happen. For example, if someone appears to be getting too angry or loud and possibly disrespectful, take them aside or suggest going somewhere else until things settle down. You could also let one of the officers of the club know about the situation. If an incident should occur in spite of your efforts when no Officers are present, make sure to let your officers know as soon afterward as you can. If no club officers happen to be there, then ALL of the SSMC members that are there need to make the attempt to take that person aside, and strongly suggest that the offending SSMC member go somewhere else to settle down.

24.  Be aware that problems created in one part of the country by a SSMC member or issues with the SSMC in one area have the potential to affect SSMC members in other areas and states.

25. The term Brother or Bro has special meaning to a Patchholder, do not call a Patchholder Brother or Bro.  Their Brothers are fellow Patchholders and those that have earned that term.

26. Don't ever touch any part of another club member's colors, which includes the vest or jacket it's sewn on.  That is considered serious disrespect, which could cause them to aggressively educate the un-informed.

The Rides of Silent Service Motorcycle Club

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